Summit Session 2: Global Challenges, Australian Responses
The Hon. Gareth Evans AO, President, International Crisis Group
The Hon. Robert Hill, Australian Permanent Representative to the UN
Alan Gyngell, The Lowy Institute
Moderated by Paul Kelly, Editor-at-Large, The Australian
Gareth Evans has been since January 2000 President and Chief Executive of the Brussels-based International Crisis Group, the independent global NGO with nearly 120 full-time staff on five continents which works, through field-based analysis and high level policy advocacy, to prevent and resolve deadly conflict. Born in 1944, and educated at Hawthorn West Central and Melbourne High Schools, he holds first class honours degrees in Law from Melbourne University (BA, LLB (Hons) and in Politics, Philosophy and Economics from Oxford University (MA). Before entering the Australian Parliament in 1978, he was an academic lawyer specialising in constitutional and civil liberties law and a barrister specialising in industrial law. He became a Queens Counsel (QC) in 1983.
A member of the Australian Parliament for 21 years, he was Senator for Victoria from 1978 to 1996, serving as Deputy Leader (1987-1993) and then Leader (1993-1996) of the Government, and was a member of the House of Representatives for Holt from 1996 until September 1999, serving as Deputy Leader of the Opposition (1996-1998). He was a Cabinet Minister in the Hawke and Keating Labor Governments for thirteen years, in the posts of Attorney General (1983-84), Minister for Resources and Energy (1984-87), Minister for Transport and Communications (1987-88) and Foreign Minister (1988-1996). As Foreign Minister, Gareth Evans became best known internationally for his roles in developing the UN peace plan for Cambodia, bringing to a conclusion the international Chemical Weapons Convention, founding the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum and ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), and initiating the Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons. He was Australian Humanist of the Year in 1990, won the ANZAC Peace Prize in 1994 for his work on Cambodia, was made an Officer of the Order of Australia (AO) in 2001, and was awarded Honorary Doctorates of Laws by Melbourne University in 2002 and Carleton University in 2005. In the United States he received in 1995 the $US150 000 Grawemeyer Prize for Ideas Improving World Order for his Foreign Policy article "Cooperative Security and Intrastate Conflict".
Gareth Evans has written or edited eight books - including Cooperating for Peace (1993) and Australia''s Foreign Relations (1991, 2nd ed 1995), and has published over 90 chapters in books and journal articles (and many more newspaper and magazine articles) on foreign relations, politics, human rights and legal reform. He has maintained strong academic and scholarly connections throughout his career, lecturing at many universities around the world. In May 2004 he was elected as an Honorary Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, and is a member of the International Advisory Board of UN Studies at Yale; the Advisory Council of the Institute for International Studies at Stanford; and the Editorial Advisory Board of the Cambridge Review of International Affairs. He co-chaired the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, whose report, The Responsibility to Protect, was published in December 2001; and was a member of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict (co-chairs Cyrus Vance and David Hamburg, 1997), the UN Secretary General''s HighLevel Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change (2004), the Commission on Weapons of Mass Destruction (chair Hans Blix, June 2006, and the International Task Force on Global Public Goods (chair Ernesto Zedillo, September 2006). He is currently a member of the UN Secretary-General''s Advisory Committee on Genocide.
The Hon. Robert Hill
Robert Hill took up his appointment as Australian Ambassador to the United Nations in April 2006 following a distinguished career in the Australian Parliament and as a Cabinet Minister in Government. He was a Senator for the State of South Australia from July 1981 until March 2006. From March 1996 to October 2001 he was the Federal Minister for Environment. From October 2001, until his resignation in January 2006, he was the Minister for Defence. He was Leader of the Government in the Senate from 1996 to 2006. Mr Hill held a number of shadow portfolios in opposition including Justice, Foreign Affairs, Defence, Public Administration, Education and Science and Technology. Prior to his entry into politics he practiced law as a barrister and solicitor.
Mr Hill''s interests include law reform, Australian and Asian history, legal and environmental education and the arts. He was born in 1946 in Adelaide, South Australia and educated at Scotch College. He holds a Law degree and an Arts degree from the University of Adelaide and a Masters of Law from the University of London. He is married with four children.
Allan Gyngell, the Executive Director of the Lowy Institute for International Policy, has a wide background in international policymaking in Australia. He joined the then Department of External Affairs in 1969 and had postings to Rangoon, Singapore and Washington. He then spent a number of years working for the Office of National Assessments, Australia''s national intelligence analysis organisation. He also headed the International Division of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, from where he was appointed in 1993 as foreign policy adviser to the Australian Prime Minister, Paul Keating.
He has worked as a consultant to a number of Australian companies. His book ''Making Australian Foreign Policy'', co-written with Michael Wesley, was published by Cambridge University Press in July 2003. He is a member of both the Australian Government''s Foreign Affairs Council, and Defence and National Security Advisory Council. He was educated in history and political science at Melbourne University. Publications include Australia''s emerging global role, Current History, Vol. 104 No. 680, March 2005, pp. 99-104 (with Michael Wesley), Making Australian Foreign Policy, Cambridge University Press, 2003.